Czech musicology at the beginning of the 20th century was strongly influenced by Romanticism, in particular by the styles of Wagner and Smetana. Performance practises were conservative, and actively resistant to stylistic innovation. During his lifetime, Janáček reluctantly conceded to Karel Kovařovic’s instrumental rearrangement of Jenůfa, most noticeably in the finale, in which Kovařovic added a more ‘festive’ sound of trumpets and French horns, and doubled some instruments to support Janáček’s “poor” instrumentation. The score of Jenůfa was later restored by Charles Mackerras, and is now performed according to Janáček’s original intentions.

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